GPAT Pharmaceutical Analysis Syllabus 2021 – Get Syllabus PDF Here

Latest Applications Open 2021:


GPATThe National Testing Agency is shortly known as NTA and it is conducted the GPAT 2021 Examination, which is commonly known as the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test. There is many of the candidates may appear for this examination every year.

Those candidates are interested to get admission in the medical courses, they can fill the application form of GPAT and through this examination result, and the candidates will be eligible and go for the counseling procedure.

Here, through this article, the candidates will be able to know the complete information of GPAT in which includes GPAT 2021 Syllabus.

GPAT Pharmaceutical Analysis Syllabus – PDF Available

New GPAT 2021 Pharmaceutical Analysis Syllabus is Available. Click Here to Download PDF.

Pharmaceutical Analysis

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Acid-base titrations: Definitions of acids & bases according to Arrhenius & Lewis theory. Definitions of normality, molarity, molality, & equivalent weight. Primary & secondary standards with examples & differences between them. Standardization of strong acids & bases using primary & secondary standards. Preparation of standard solutions of & calculations of equivalent weights of oxalic acid, potassium acid phthalate, calcium chloride dihydrate, & sodium carbonate. Calculation of factors involved in the standardization of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, & oxalic acid. Direct, back & differential titrations. Application of direct & back titrations to preparations like boric acid & borax in a mixture ammoniated mercury, milk of magnesia, & zinc oxide ointment.

Law of mass action, acid-base equilibria, pH scale, pH & hydronium ion concentrations in aqueous systems, calculations of pH for weak acids & weak bases. Use & applications of pH meter. Hydrolysis of salts. Strengths of acids & bases, dissociation constant.

Theory of acid-base indicators. Neutralization [titration] curves.

Definition, different types of buffers [chemical & biological], & their composition. Buffer capacity, buffered isotonic solutions. Calculations involving the preparation of various buffer capacity solutions. Biological & pharmaceutical applications of buffers.

Non-aqueous titrations: Acid-base definitions according to Lowry-Bronsted, Lewis & Arrhenius concept. Factors affecting the strengths of acids & bases. Intrinsic structure & surrounding environment. Protophilic, protogenic, amphiprotic & aprotic solvents. Acid-base equilibria in non- aqueous media. Titrants & indicators used for the assay of acidic & basic substances. Preparation of perchloric acid, the formation of onium ion. Assay of 1o, 2o, 3o amines & amine hydrochlorides using perchloric acid & the reactions involved in it. Standardization of sodium ethoxide solution. Assay of phenols & phenobarbitone. General applications of non-aqueous titrations

Oxidation-reduction titrations: Definition of oxidation, reduction, oxidizing & reducing agent. Equivalent weight, the concept of half-reactions. Systematic balancing of half-reactions with respect to:

  • Oxalic acid-KMnO4,
  • FeSO4-ceric nitrate, &
  • I2-sodium thiosulphate solution titrations.

Calculation of equivalent weight of oxalic acid, KMnO4, FeSO4, permanganate & I2 from half-reactions. Calculation of factors for titrations mentioned in a, b & c.

Redox titrations: KMnO4 as self-indicator, it’s preparation, standardization, & use in the assay of ferrous gluconate tablets, H2O2, & NaNO2 solution.

  • Iodometric & iodometric titrations. Definitions & difference between iodimetry & iodometry. Preparation, standardization of iodine solution. Assay of ascorbic acid & sulphur ointment by iodimetry. Assay of copper sulphate & ferric chloride by iodometry.
  • Bromometric titrations.
  • Iodate titrations. Definition. Preparation, standardization & use of KIO3 in the assay of ascorbic acid & KI.
  • Cerimetric titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of ceric solutions in the assay of paracetamol tablets. It’s advantages over permanganate solutions.
  • Bromine titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of bromine solution in the assay of phenol & isoniazid tablets.
  • Potassium dichromate titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of potassium dichromate solution in the assay of ferrous ammonium sulfate.

Precipitation titrations: The principle of solubility product & sparingly soluble salts.Titrants & indicators used in Mohr’s, Volhard’s, & Fajan’s methods. Preparation & standardization of silver nitrate & ammonium thiocyanate solutions. Assay of sodium chloride by Mohr’s method, use of nitrobenzene in the assay of halides, ammonium chloride, & thiourea by Volhard’s method. Calculation of factors in argentometric titrations. Titration curve method. General applications of precipitation titrations.

Complexometric titrations: Difference between double salts & co-ordinate compounds. Definitions of the coordination number of metal ions, ligands- uni-, bi-, & multidentate. Complexing, chelating, & sequestering agents with respective examples. Structure of complexes of platinum with ammonia. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate [EDTA] as a multidentate ligand in complexometry. Coordinate compounds of EDTA with bi-, tri-, & tetravalent metal ions. Stability of complexes & factors affecting it, use of buffers in EDTA titrations. Selective analysis of ions based on pH adjustments, use of masking & demasking agents, pM or metal ion indicators. Standardization of EDTA solution, titration curves, and examples of assays carried out by direct & back titrations & by replacement of one complex by the other. Applications of complexometry in the assays of calcium gluconate, milk of magnesia, zinc undecenoate ointment, & aluminum hydroxide gel. Assay of NaF by indirect titration.

Gravimetry: Principles of gravimetry. Factors affecting precipitation, formation, & properties of the precipitate. Colloidal state. Impurities in the precipitate, conditions of precipitation. Precipitation from homogeneous solutions, washing, drying, & ignition of the precipitate.

Experimental techniques of drying & ignition. Applications of gravimetry in pharmacy.

Extraction techniques: Liquid-liquid extraction, separation of mixtures by extraction. Distribution law. Successive & multiple extraction [Craig method], continuous counter- current extraction. Effect of temperature & pH on extraction. Inert solute, associate ion pair formation, emulsion problem in extractions. Applications in pharmacy.

Potentiometry: Theory, ion-selective electrodes, measurement of potential, red-ox titration curve, pH measurement, the relation of pH to potential. Applications in pharmacy.

Miscellaneous methods of analysis: Diazotization titrations. Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation. Karl Fisher titrations. Liquid galenicals. Oxygen flask Determination of alcohol content in liquid galenicals. Oxygen flask combustion method.

Calibration: Calibration of instruments.

General principles of spectroscopy: Wave-particle duality, wave properties, particulate properties. Line & band spectrum. Electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption & emission spectroscopy. Understanding of terms such as absorbance, transmittance, absorptivities, molar absorptivity, E 1cm 1%, Amax, effect of solvent & pH on Amax.

Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometry: Different electronic transitions. Auxochromes & their effects, auxochromic, bathochromic & hypsochromic shifts [red & blue shifts]. Beer-Lambert law, its derivation, deviations in Beer’s law. Single & double beam spectrophotometers covering sources of radiations, different monochromators, detectors such as barrier cell, photocell, photomultiplier tube. Photodiode array detector. Applications of this technique in qualitative & quantitative estimations giving emphasis on problem-solving. Fieser-Woodward rules for calculations of theoretical Amax values.

Spectrofluorimetry: Principle, definitions & types of luminescence. Mechanism of fluorescence & phosphorescence. Singlet & triplet states & intersystem crossing. Fluorescence yield & factors affecting it. Quenching of fluorescence & fluorescence quenchers. Structure & fluorescence. The brief discussion of instrumentation. Applications of fluorimetry in pharmacy.

Flame photometry & atomic absorption spectrometry: Principle & instrumentation with an emphasis on working & the importance of different components. Temperature, flame absorption & emission profiles. Interferences & their avoidance. Quantitative estimations & applications.

Infrared spectrometry: The infrared region in the EM spectrum. The principle, different stretching & bending vibrations. Components [& their working] of a dispersive instrument. Fourier transforms [FT] technique, FT instruments & their comparison with dispersive instruments. Sample handling techniques. Functional group & fingerprint regions in the spectrum. Functional groups identification & their use in the characterization of compounds. Problems based on the identification of functional groups from spectra of unknown compounds.

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry: The principle involved in the technique. Knowledge about fundamental terms involved such as quantized absorption, flipping of nucleus, spin number, magnetic moment, magnetogyric ratio, relaxation, etc. Equations relating these terms to the frequency of radiation & magnetic field [without derivation of the equations]. Types of relaxation processes. Low & high-resolution instruments. A brief discussion on the low-resolution instrumentation [60 MHz]. Quantitative knowledge of the relationship between MHz & magnetic field. An introduction to superconductivity magnets. Solvents & reference standards used. Setting up of an NMR scale. Sample preparation. Shielding & deshielding of a proton & its effect on chemical shifts. Discussion on & importance of equivalent & non equivalent protons [ number of signals ], chemical shifts [position of signal] & their calculation from the spectrum, chemical shifts of different H’s, splitting [multiplicity] of a signal, coupling constants [J values] , integration [area under the signal] . Importance of these terms in identification [or confirmation] of different functional groups. Significance & contribution of J value in stereochemistry. Prediction [expected theoretical values] of chemical shifts & multiplicities for all protons from simple structures containing up to 12-15 carbons. An introduction to FT-technique & its significance in 13C-NMR spectrometry.

Mass Spectrometry: Principle. Low & high-resolution instruments. Components & importance of each in brief. Different types of mass spectrometric techniques. Brief knowledge of Chemical Ionization mass spectrometry. Calculations of hydrogen deficiency index [HDI] or unsaturation index [UI]. Base or parent peak, molecular ion, M + 1, M + 2 peaks. Calculations of molecular weight based on M +1 & M + 2 peaks. Formation of molecular ion & further fragmentation. Rearrangements in mass spectrometry. Major modes of fragmentations of hydrocarbons, hydroxyl compounds, halogen compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and amines. Introduction [only] to recent advances in MS.

Polarography: Principle & instrumentation. Ilkovich equation [no derivation] & its importance. Dropping mercury electrode [DME], saturated calomel electrode. Liquid-liquid junction potential, polarographic cell. Explanation of the origin of the S-shaped C-V curve. Applications

of this technique. Amperometric titrations, principles, instrumentation, & applications.

Nephelometry & Turbidimetry: Principles, Tyndall effect. Duboscq turbidimeter. Eeel’s nephelometer. Applications.

Chromatography: Principle, rate & plate theory, Van Deemter equation & the parameters affecting separation/band broadening. Classification of chromatography, retention factor. A detailed study of thin-layer chromatography [TLC], preparative TLC, paper chromatography [PC], column chromatography, gas chromatography [GC / GLC]. Qualitative & quantitative applications of the above techniques. An introduction to high performance TLC [HPTLC], comparison of TLC & HPTLC. A brief introduction to high pressure / performance liquid chromatography [HPLC].

Miscellaneous: An introduction to electrophoresis. An introduction to lasers & masers. Statistical treatment to experimental data. Sampling techniques & applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

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Latest Applications For Various UG & PG Courses Open 2021:

    1. UPES, Dehradun | Admissions Open for All Courses 2021. Apply Now
    2. Chandigarh University, Punjab | Admissions Open for All Courses 2021. Apply Now
    3. GD Goenka, Gurgaon | Admission Open for All Courses 2021. Apply Now
    4. DIT University, Dehradun | Admission Open for All Courses 2021. Apply Now
    5. Sharda University | Admission Open all courses 2021. Apply Now
    6. Manav Rachna University, Haryana | Admission Open for all courses 2021. Apply Now
    7. KL University | Admission Open at KL University, Andhra Pradesh.  Apply Now



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