GPAT Pharmacognosy Syllabus 2021 – Get Syllabus PDF Here

GPATThe National Testing Agency is shortly known as NTA, and it is conducted the GPAT 2021 Examination, which is commonly known as the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test. There is many of the candidates may appear for this examination every year.

Those candidates are interested in getting admission in the medical courses, they can fill the application form of GPAT, and through this examination result, and the candidates will be eligible and go for the counseling procedure.

Here, through this article, the candidates will be able to know the complete information of GPAT in which includes GPAT 2021 Syllabus.

GPAT Pharmacognosy Syllabus – PDF Available

New GPAT 2021 Pharmacognosy Syllabus is available. Click Here to Download PDF.

Pharmacognosy

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    2. Bennett University (Times Group), Admission Open for 2020. Apply Now
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    5. St. Andrew’s Institute of Technology and Management, Admission open 2020. Apply Now

Introductory Pharmacognosy: Historical development, modern concept, and scope of Pharmacognosy. The significance of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic, and Siddha.

Classification of crude drugs: Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical, and chemotaxonomic methods: organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs.

Sources of crude drugs: Plants, animals, and minerals: marine products: plant tissue culture.

Factors influencing the quality of crude drugs: Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude, and soil. Endogenous factors: Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants. Production factors, including collection, drying, storage, and transport methods.

Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell inclusions, anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves, and roots: barks, fruits, and seeds.

Techniques in microscopy: Details of mountants, clearing agents, them microscopic (microchemical) reagents.

Introduction to phytoconstituents: Definition, classification, chemical tests, and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates and their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, lipids, and volatile oils.

Principles of plant classification

Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with particular reference to:

  • Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms).
  • Fungi: Ergot, Yeast, and Penicillium.
  • Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra).
  • Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae, and Apiaceae.
  • Pteridophytes: Male fern.

Pharmaceutical aids: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of Starches, acacia gum, tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, Arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselguhr.

Animal products: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of Shellac, cochineal, cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.

Plant products: Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and photosensitizing agents.

Toxic drugs: Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics, poisonous mushrooms

Enzymes: Biological sources, preparation, characters, and uses of diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast, pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase, and streptokinase.

Natural pesticides and insecticides: Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, & neem.

Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs: Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods. Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects.

Quantitative microscopy: Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method. Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters.

Biogenetic pathways: Formation of primary and secondary metabolites. Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid pathway, Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway. Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.

Carbohydrates & lipids: Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of Plantago, bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids.

Tannins: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test and uses of Pale catechu, black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna.

Volatile Oils: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Black pepper, turpentine, Mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel, lemongrass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, Chenopodium, ajowan, sandalwood.

Resinous drugs; Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants and uses of benzoin, Peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth, ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum.

Glycosides: Nature and classification. Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, Thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna, quassia, Dioscorea, quillaia, Glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, Withania, bitter almond. Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides.

Alkaloids: Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscyamus, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea, cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, Kurchi, ephedra, colchicum, vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum. Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and opium alkaloids.

Extraction and Isolation Techniques: General methods used for the extraction, isolation, and identification of alkaloids, lipids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins. Application of column, paper, and thin layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.

Phytopharmaceuticals: Isolation, identification, and estimation of caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid, diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine, quinine, andrographolides, and Guggul lipids.

Quality control and standardization of herbal drugs: Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelines- Extractive values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC, and HPLC) for the determination of chromatographic markers. Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations.

Herbal formulations: Principals involved in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines. Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, Chitika, Italia, churna, avaleha, ghrita, and basis: Unani formulations like majors, Seafood. Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas & asavas.

Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils: Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.

Herbal cosmetics: Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna, hibiscus, tea), skincare (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).

Traditional herbal drugs: Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological and clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua), chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).

Plants based industries and research institutes in India: Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.

Patents: Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to phytoconstituents.

Ayurvedic system of medicine: Theory, a basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in Ayurveda, types of the drug formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas, arishtas, Vatika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep.

Homeopathic system of medicine: Theory, a basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs and their uses

Also, Check Below-

Latest Applications For Various UG & PG Courses Open 2020:

    1. Manav Rachna University, Haryana – 2020 UG & PG Admission Open. Apply Now
    2. Bennett University (Times Group), Admission Open for 2020. Apply Now
    3. Chandigarh University, Punjab 2020 Admission Open for all Courses. Apply Now
    4. MIT World Peace University, Admissions Open for All Courses 2019-20. Apply Now
    5. St. Andrew’s Institute of Technology and Management, Admission open 2020. Apply Now

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Biochemistry 

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  1. Ishrat jahan says:

    Sir pharmacology syllabus upload kijiye

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