What is drainage? And how does this drainage system works in India? On such a large scale? Let’s know more about this:
• The flow of water through well-defined channels and modes Is probably known as drainage and the network of such channels in the form of the chain is known as a drainage system.
• The drainage pattern of an area is basically the outcome of the geological time period, nature, and as well as the structure of rocks, topography, slope, etc of the particular area.
• About 77% of the drainage area out of the 100% is comprising of the river “ Ganga”, the Brahmaputra, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, etc. and this drainage system is then oriented towards the Bay of Bengali in the east.
• And On the other remaining 23% left of the 100% is comprising the Indus, the Narmada, the Tapi, the Mahi, and the Periyar systems and then these get discharged their waters in the Arabian Sea in the west.
• A river drain is basically a specific area of this drainage system , which is to be called as the catchment area of that particular river.
• And a drained area by the river and the tributaries of the river is known as a drainage basin of that river.
• And The boundary line which is separating one drainage basin of the river from the other is known as the watershed area.
Drainage Pattern, what are the drainage patterns of the country?
• Following are the major drainage patterns in the country, Dendritic, Radial, Centripetal, and Trellis.
• A drainage pattern which looks like tree branches with lots of twigs is known as Dendritic drainage pattern
• Radial drainage patterns form when rivers originate from a hill and flow in all directions.
• When rivers discharge their waters from all the directions all over te sides into a lake or either into a depression Is known as Centripetal drainage pattern.
• when the primary and the main tributaries of the main rivers flow parallel directions to each other and secondary tributaries join them at right angles is known as the Trellis drainage patern.
Classification of Drainage of the Indian drainage system.
• On the conditions of the modes of nature the origin of the river and characteristics, the Indian drainage system is now subdivided into 2 main parts
a)The Himalayan drainage
b)The Peninsular drainage.
• Major drainage systems in the Himalayan area are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra rivers .
• The Indus River system has a length of the approximately to 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km).
• the Sindhu which is also known as the Indus river in the westernmost of the humalayan river of the India
• In the kailash mountain range ,The Indus river is originated from a glacier which is near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetan region which is at an altitude of about 4,164 m
• In Tibetan region , the Indus has another name which is known as the Singi
• In the chiller which is situated in the dardistan region of the Pakistan takes the inflows of the Indus river.
• Major tributaries of the Indus river are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar, the Gasting, and the Dras in the upper part.of the Indus river.
• And In the lower part of the Indus, the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum are the major tributaries of the Indus which are contributing to the lower part .
• And at the end, the Indus river discharges into the Arabian Sea which is situated near Karachi on the Pakistan side.
• The Jhelum is forming one of the most important tributaries of the Indus which is rising from a spring situated at Verinag and this is located at the foot of the “Pir Panjal.”
• The Jhelum ( a tributary of the Indus ) flows through the Srinagar situated in the northern part of India and then into the Wular Lake before it finally enters into the Pakistan.
• And then the most vital tributary of the Indus river “Jhelum “joins the Chenab which is near “Jhang” situated in Pakistan.
• The formation of the two mains streams which comprises of . the Chandra and the Bhaga, the Chenab is the largest tributary of the Indus river .
• And this largest tributary of the Indus which is “Chenab” is also known as Chandra Bhat
• The Chandra bag ( Chenab) is flowing from about approximately 1,180 km before it enters into the Pakistan origin
• Ravi is also the tributary of the river Indus which is Originating from the Rohtang and it pass in the Kullu hills of the Himachal Pradesh and it also flows trough the Chamba valley of the state .and flowing through the Chamba valley of the state, Ravi is one of the important tributaries of the Indus.
• Which has an origin from the Beas Kund near the Rohtang and Pass at an elevation of about 4,000 m which is above the mean sea level this tributary
• Beas is also an important tributary of the Indus.
• Beas is also entering into the Punjab plains and then is getting joined with the Satluj which is in the Harike.
• Also popular as Langchen Khambab (in Tibet), the Satluj originates from the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet.
• The Satluj also crosses from the Shipka La which is at the Himalayan ranges and then it is entering the Punjab plains.
• The Satluj is the river that is basically aiming to feed the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal project and hence it is considered one of the most important rivers of the India as it is the fuel of such a huge project of the country.
And this was all about the drainage system of the river Indus. Hoping that all the queries of the Indus river drainage system are been resolved.