The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ( UPSC SCIENCE)
Have you ever wondered about what is Indian space research organization? What is it? What has India achieved in terms of the space research? And what are its developments? How many satellites have been launched? And how many were successful? What are the current projects the ISRO is working on ? and how many of them are in space? And what are the current initiatives well this article is al about it and If you ever had these questions in your mind then this article is all about answering to all of your such questions.
ISRO stands for Indian research space organization and it is one of the agencies organised by the government in order to handle the space researchers and conduct study in the space. Aznd the ISRO has its headquartered in the city of “Bengaluru”. And the organization has its own self-designed vision which is basically to “harness space technology for national development which will be while pursuing space science research and also to explore the other planet in the solar system.
The Indian space research organization has been formed in the year 1969 and ISRO had replaced the (INCOSPAR) which stood for Indian national committee for space research which was organized in the year of 1962 initiated by the prime minister of the country first PM Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru incorporation with his close associate and scientist Vikram Sarabhai. The establishment of ISRO which was institutionalised especially for space activities in India .It is well managed by the Department of Space has and obligation to report to the Prime Minister of the country and ISRO is a great initiate in order to lead to the developments of the space research and contribute to the pool of the knowledge about space.
The primary motive of Indian space research organization is to develop space technology and its application to the space study for the various nation Indian space program which was motivated by the by the vision of “ Vikram Sarabhai” who is considered to be the father of the Indian Space Programme and As he said in the year of 1969:
“ There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the Moon or the planets or manned space-flight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, and in the community of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society.”
The president Abdul kalam “ Many individuals with myopic vision questioned the relevance of space activities in a newly independent nation, which was finding it difficult to feed its population. Their vision was clear if Indians were to play a meaningful role in the community of nations, they must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to their real-life problems. They had no intention of using it as a means of displaying our might ”
The first ever satellite built by the Indias space research organization is named as “Aryabhata” which was launched by the Soviet Union on the 19th of the April in the year 1975 and the second most famous initiative of the ISRO was made in the year of 1980 “Rohini “was the first and one of the most vital satellite that has been placed by the Indian space research organization in the space orbit which was done by and Indian made launched vehicle SLV-3 and also the ISRO simultaneously led to the development of the two other type of rockets . there was a continuous progress pattern noticed in the Indian space research organization.
a) The first rocket initiated by the ISRO after the Rohini was the – ( Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) )which will enable to launch the satellites into polar orbits. It was basically launched to help the Indian space researchers to launch their Indian remote sensing IRS into Sun- synchronous orbits . initially, this was available only in the country Russia.
b) The second rocket initiated by the ISRO was the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) in order to place the satellites into geostationary orbits. This rocket was initiated to assist the space research of India without any help on foreign rockets and Providers . and till date they have launched 9 of the GSLV and the very first one of the GSLV was launched in the year of 2001 . These rockets have established a number of the communications satellites and also the earth observation satellites and these were one of the markable initiatives of the Indian space research organization as they were now focusing on to be independent for their study of the space.
The ISRO also had started with the Satellite navigation systems like which are “GAGAN” and the “IRNSS” have been out in an effective and constant observation. GAGAN- It was an initiative launched in collaboration with the authority of India and isro and this project is a satellite-based augmentation system and its main aim is to deploy and also certify the satellite-based augmentation system for the safety of the life . the unique part of the system if that it is interoperable with the other international satellites f the other countries of United states Europe and etc.
IRNSS- Indian regional navigation satellite system was basically to provide real-time details and it is been launched in GEO ( geostationary orbit ) and GSO ( geosynchronous orbit) and in the geo orbit there are nearly 4 satellites launched and in gso there are 3 satellites launched . these two orbits are nearly 36000 kilometers above the surface of the earth. In the month of January of the year 2014 the Indian space research organization has successfully used an indigenous cryogenic engine in the launch of the GSLV-D5 ( an eight of Indian GSLV . and this is expected to replace the GSAT-3 ( which is also known as EDUSAT a satellite-based for communication and was the first ever satellite built by the Indian researchers in order to promote the education sector and first launch was made by the Satish Dhawan space centre in Sriharikota ) which was launched in the year 2004 .and also for the launch of the GSAT-14.
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Indian space research organization also sent one lunar orbiter which was the Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October in the year 2008 and was the first ever mission of the ISRO to the moon and it was around the moon approximately 100km above the moon and after it being successful it was been raised to 200km in the year 2009 and also sent one Mars orbiter Mars Orbiter Mission which had started n the year of 2013 in the month of November and which had successfully entered the Mar’s orbit on the 24 September 2014 which made India the first nation to succeed in its first attempt to the mars and Indian space research organization was the fourth space agency in the world as well as the first space agency in Asia which has successfully reached the Mars orbit it was the remarkable initiative of the ISRO Appreciated by the world and it was a 10 month flight.
Future plans of the Indian space research organization also include development of GSLV Mk II( geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle mark II and this is also known as the LVM3 and it is basically launch vehicle which was intended into the GSO basically to launch the heavier satellites and also the development of a reusable launch vehicle and the human spaceflight and further lunar exploration, interplanetary investigation or enquiry to know in depth about the space and universe and develop the space knowledge of the world and also a solar spacecraft mission etc.
The Indian space research organization has carried spacecraft missions which was about 75 spacecraft and 46 launch missions and around 51 foreign satellites have been launched by Indian space research organization to launch vehicles and also 28 ISRO satellites have been launched by foreign launch vehicles and As of October 2015, ISRO has planned to launch more 23 foreign satellites of 9 different nations which also includes the Algeria, Canada, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and the United states.
India’s first satellite the “Aryabhata “ ( named after an Indian astronomer) which was launched by the Soviet Union on the 19th of the April in the year 1975 from Kapustin Yar which was using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle this was done in order to gain experience in building and operating the satellites in the space world and it has the Indian ports were used by the USSR so that they can track their ships and launch vessels in exchange of the launching Indian satellites. and after this the “Rohini “series of the satellites full of experiments which were built and launched formally and its regime was approximately 400 km circular to the low earth which basically means a regions of space around the earth and it was below the altitude of the earth which is approximately 2000 kilometers and to complete one orbit in the low earth orbit it will take nearly 90 minutes for a satellite and At the current date the Indian space research organization is operating a huge number of the earth observing satellites which are as follows:
- The IRS ( Indian remote sensing ) series
- Radar Imaging Satellites
- The gagan satellite navigation system.
- The IRNSS navigation system ( the Indian regional navigation system) having an operational name as NAVIC and Hindi word which means a sailor or navigator in English and this is used to provide an accurate timing across the geographical boundaries of the country.
- Indian human spaceflight programme.
This is all about the Indian space research organization one of the markable space research organization in the world out of the 70 total space research organizations in the world.
And remarkable initiative of the Indian space research organization as they have test launched they’re first ever space shuttle which is made in India and it is called the reusable launch vehicle ( RLV-TD) on the 23rd may 2016 from Sriharikota in the state of Andhra Pradesh – “ A SWADESHI SPACE SHUTTLE “ and this is a 6.5 metre long aeroplane like structure weighing 1.7 tons and the government of India has 95 crores for this project and this is a preliminary step taken by the Indian space research organisation and this is especially important initiative ever since after the year of 2011 as the united states NASA had abandoned its reusable space shuttle.and if this becomes a reality then this invention will help the ISRO to reduce the cost of space travel by 10 times .
And this was all about the Indian space research organization one should know. As the Indian space, researchers have made a markable significance to the space research of the world and have been constantly growing. Hats of these smart researchers as they have taken the country to new heights and widely contributed to the space knowledge of the world.
All the best to the IAS aspirants do well And study hard.