Jallianwala Bagh Massacre April 13, 1919 tragedy story (History)
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Year April 13, 1919
The First World War brought enormous burden upon the people of India. They had been dragged into war without their consent. The strength of armed forces was increased considerably. Many young men were compelled to join the army against the wishes of their parents. The Indian soldiers were sent to distant lands to fight for the British imperialism. About 60,000 brave sons of India lost their lives during the War. The ordinary people faced many shortages of consumer .items and an abnormally high rate of inflation. Since the Britishers, along with their allies, were fighting the war to defend democracy and the right of self- determination for all communities, it was not too big for the Indians to hope that their rulers would grant them self-governing institutions at the end of the hostilities in consonance with the declaration made by Edwin Montague, Secretary of State for India, in the House of Commons on August 20, 1917 (Jallianwala Bagh).
The appointment of a Sedition Committee by Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, on December 10, 1917, under the chairmanship of Justice Rowlatt to suggest measures deal effectively with the revolutionary movement in India threw cold water on the hopes of the people and enraged them beyond measure. The Sedition Committee submitted its report in April 1918 by which the government introduced two Bills in the Central Assembly, known as the Rowlatt Bills (popularly dubbed as the Black Bills) This was bound to add fuel to the fire. The There were protest meeting and demonstrations throughout the country—in Delhi, Allahabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Patna, Madras now Bombay (now Mumbai). Gandhiji who had been a staunch loyal so far also felt humiliated. He wrote to the Viceroy to withdraw these Bil and if this did not accede would organize a satyagraha campaign. Accordingly, he set up a Satyagraha during Jallianwala Bagh.
Call for Hartal
The country gave an excellent response to the call of Gandhiji. Everything came to a standstill on the day of the hartal. Many observed the full-day fast also. Public meetings were held. Demonstrations took place. The government became panicky. It tried to terrorize the people. In Delhi, where the hartal took place on March 30, 1919, it was a day of great happenings. There was a spirit of complete harmony and comradeship between the Hindus and Muslims. Swami Shradhanand, the great Arya Samaj leader, spoke to the vast crowds at Jama Masjid. He was a tall man, dressed in orange clothes—a sanyasi. He led the procession at Chandni Chowk. The troops tried to disrupt the parade. Swamiji bared his chest and asked them to shoot at him. Instead, they killed nine others, five Hindus, and four Muslims. Many were injured. The British nurses of the police hospital refused to attend to the wounded because they were rebels. Gandhiji was informed of the situation in Delhi and was requested to visit the town. As he was coming by train, the police arrested him at Palwal railway station and escorted him back to Bombay on April 8, 1919.
At Amritsar, the hartal was observed on both the dates—March 30 and April 6, 1919—an,d there was no untoward incident. It was a complete success, and there was a big
demonstration held jointly by the Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. At a public meeting of about 50,000 people, the speakers proclaimed the imminent downfall of. The British Raj if the Rowlatt Act was not withdrawn. Three days later, the people also observed Ram Naumi as the National Solidarity Day. They brought out a big procession in which the slogans of Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai and Hindu-Mussalman ki Jai were raised. This made the District Magistrate a bit nervous. In sheer desperation, he summoned to his residence the two prominent leaders of the town, Dr. Satyapal, and Dr. Saif-ud-din Kitchlew, and got them arrested.
The news of their detention caused utmost anger among the people. All shops were closed down immediately. The crowds moved towards the Civil Lines where the British bureaucrats had their bungalows. They wanted to know where their leaders were and why they had been detained. A military picket prevented them from entering the Civil Lines. When the mob went out of control, they opened fire in which not less than twenty persons were killed. This was not a good way to control the crowd. The mob became violent and embarked upon vengeance. It turned back and entered the city. It set fire to government buildings, cut telegraph and telephone lines and killed five Europeans. A missionary woman, Miss Sherwood, who was on her way to school on her bicycle, was beaten with sticks and fists and left unconscious on the roadside. She was soon removed by some other Indians to their house, given first aid and later restored to her kith and kin. The situation had gone out of control. The government, therefore, decided to manage it with the help of martial law regulations.
The Massacre of the Innocent at Jallianwala Bagh.
Brigadier General Dyer arrived from Jullundur Cantt. On the evening of April 11, 1919, to establish the martial law rule which was officially proclaimed later on April 15, 1919. Next day, he ordered indiscriminate arrests of persons to strike terror in the minds of the agitators. He ordered a march past of the troops and armored cars to frighten them. He forbade all meetings and processions and declared by the beat of drums at nineteen places that those defying his orders would be shot dead. But the people were not afraid of the guns and bullets of their British oppressors.
They assembled in large numbers at Jallianwala Bagh for another meeting on April 13, 1919, i.e., the day of Baisakhi, to make their pleadings with the authorities withdraw the Rowlatt Act. This was what Dyer could never tolerate. He reached the spot with a force of 90 soldiers and two armored cars equipped with machine guns. He stationed them at the entrance so that nobody could escape. He also knew there were walls and buildings on all sides and none would be able to run away safe when he would give orders for firing. He, therefore, gave no signal of his arrival nor any warning to the crowd to disperse. He ordered his troops to fire, and they went on till all their ammunition was exhausted. In all 1,650 rounds were fired. More than a thousand people were killed, and several thousand lay wounded. There was none to give them medical aid when they were struggling between life and death. The authorities took no care about them because their objective was to teach them a lesson. Their sympathizers were also unable to do anything because they were compelled to remain indoors through the imposition of curfew. The wounded had, therefore:, to lie in pain without a bandage, medicine or food. That was the price they had to pay for their patriotism. Little did General Dyer grasp that when a powerful imperial government fired upon unarmed people, it does not frighten them. It only accepts its helplessness.
Not content with what he had already done, Dyer issued a series of humiliating orders to chastise the people. Curfew was imposed for weeks. More than two persons were forbidden to walk on the pavements at one time. People were sentenced to salute every British officer they saw on their way.
They had to crawl on their bellies when they passed through the street in which Miss Sherwood had been assaulted. The non-performance of this humiliating act made them liable to whipping in the open for which a contingent of soldiers was stationed on the spot.
Thousands of persons were arrested and kept in jail without trial. The properties of those sympathetic to the agitators were confiscated. Students were directed to report daily at the police station for which they had to traverse long distances on foot. Such a reign of terror was not confined to Amritsar alone but prevailed all over Punjab. The entire province had become a big prison house under the superintendence of the army and the police.
The brutalities inflicted by the government upon the people of Punjab shocked the conscience of the entire nation. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood. For Gandhiji, it was an important factor to convert him from a loyalist to an agitator and enter the Congress as its supreme leader at Amritsar. Both the Congress and the government appointed their separate committees to make an inquiry into the matter.
The Congress Committee of Inquiry consisted of Gandhiji, C. R. Das, Fazl-ul-Huq and Abbas Tyabji. Its report blamed both Sir Michael O’Dwyer, the Governor of Punjab, and Brigadier General Dyer and urged the government to relieve them of their responsibilities.
The report of the Hunter Committee appointed by the government took the view that General Dyer’s conduct rested upon an “honest but mistaken conception of duty” and his actions were far beyond the reasonable requirements of the situation on whose basis the Government of India removed him from service.
It was unfortunate that when General Dyer returned to England in disgrace, his countrymen did not denounce him for his brutal acts. The House of Lords passed a resolution by 129 votes to 89 deploring his removal. The Morning Post of London asked its readers to subscribe to a fund to be donated to him and was able to collect an enormous sum of £ 30,000. A ladies association was calling itself The Women of England’ presented him with a sword of honor. A large number of Europeans in India also regarded him as the savior of the British empire. This was bound to cause a breach of faith between the rulers and the ruled and to enrage the enlightened pro-British Indians who were now compelled to throw themselves in line with the mainstream of national struggle.
Feedback of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
After the event had happened, British General Dyer had reported to his superior officer about his confrontation with the revolutionary army and then stated by the Lieutenant-Governor Michael O’ Dwyer through a telegram that “Your action is correct and the Lieutenant Governor approves.” O’ Dwyer also had requested for the continuation of the martial law upon the Amritsar and other nearest areas which were later granted by the Viceroy Lord Chelmsford.
It was criticized by the Winston Churchill for which he had debated in the House of Commons on 8th of July in 1920. He said that:
“The crowd was unarmed, except with bludgeons. It was not attacking anybody or anything. When the fire had been opened upon it to disperse it, it tried to run away. Pinned up in a narrow place considerably smaller than Trafalgar Square, with hardly any exits, and packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies, the people ran madly this way and the other. When the fire was directed upon the center, they moved to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw them down on the ground; the fire was then directed down on the ground. This was continued to 8 to 10 minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion.”
After his lengthy discussion in the House of Commons, Dyer action was criticized and voted by the MPs against his action. A protest meeting against the inhuman cruelty of British rule was planned in Calcutta by the Rabindranath Tagore after getting informed about the massacre news on 22nd of May in 1919.
A Sikh teenager named Udham Singh from the Khalsa Orphanage was the real witness of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre happenings on 13th of April 1919. He took revenge of his more than 1300 countrymen (killed in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre) by killing the Lieutenant-Governor Michael O’Dwyer at Caxton Hall in London for which he was hanged at Pentonville jail of London on 31st of July in 1940.
Establishment of Hunter Commission in response to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
It was declared by the Government of India on 14th of October in 1919 to make a committee for inquiring the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in the state of Punjab. This commission was later named as the Hunter Commission after the name of chairman, Lord William Hunter. The committee was established aiming to investigate properly about all the cases happened recently in the Bombay, Punjab, and Delhi.
However, the Hunter Commission became unable to implement any disciplinary action as the actions of Dyer as were disregarded by his superiors. But after lots of efforts, he was found guilty and forced to get retired from the army before time in the month of July in 1920. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya had also raised his voice in the Central Legislative Council against the Dyer actions. According to his personal discovery, he claimed that more than 1,000 people were killed by the whole crowd of 15,000 to 20,000.
An annual session was held by the Indian National Congress in the month of December in 1919 at Amritsar and requested British Government that “take early steps to establish a fully responsible government in India by the principle of self-determination.” The All India Sikh League was formed by the people of Sikh religion as their representative body for the political actions. They had demanded to reform their Sikh shrines through the Gurdwara Reform movement during 1920-25. Some of the Sikh servicemen had resigned from their army service and adopted non-violence by the Akali movement leaders to constitute an anti-British terrorist group called as Babar Akalis.
Small Video Explaining the incidence
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Jallianwala Baug is a very Famous place in India which is built in the year 1919. It is the known as the Public Garden which is situated in the Amritsar of Punjab.
It is built for the peaceful memory of the people which has become a great and ancient place in the State of Punjab in India. Jallianwala Baug was due to an incident occured in the punjab State in India.
Jallianwala Baug was started first in the year 1951 to remember and provide the respect to the National Leaders who had provided their lives for the Independence of the people.
Britishers and many of the people of India had to celebrate many festivals in the Jallianwala Baug which is also known as Punjabi New Year celebrated on the 13th April 1919 at Amritsar.
There was a British Raj at the time of Jallianwala Baug in which people many of the people died and also were injured during some War in the Jallianwala Baug.
Almost 379 people were died and 1100 people were injured in the Jallianwala Baug War. It was reported by the Civil Surgeons that almost 1526 people were injured, but it is not exactly known the number of people who died in the Jallianwala Baug.
Jallianwala Baug is situated in the region about 6.5 acres i.e 26000 m2 near the Complex of the Golden Temple which is considered as the Holy Place for the Sikh Religion people.
Jallianwala Baug is now managed and handled with the help of Trust which is also called as the National Memorial Trust of the Jallianwala Baug.
The Memorial was started by the Indian Government in 1951 according to the act of National Memorial Act of Jallianwala Baug.
Jallianwala Baug is used to provide the respect to the people of Indian National Leaders like the Mahatma Gandhiji, Swami Vivekanand, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Dr BabaSaheb Ambedkar and many more.
Jallianwala Baug Massacre is celebrated every year on the 13th April in India to provide the Indian Leaders the Respect and Salutation for sacrificing their life for the Independence of the India.
There are many people who were very angry and unhappy in India due to the cruel acts and rules of the Britishers. People of India had to cooperate with each other to eradicate the Britishers and to make India Independent from the Britishers.
It is very sad thing that the people of India were made slaves by the Britishers. So it was very important for the people of India to fight for their rights against the Britishers to make the India free from the cruel rule of the Britishers.
Jallianwala Baug makes every people in India to remember the massacre fight between the Britishers and the Indians.
It was very bad war and many of the people had died and got injured during the War. Jallianwala Baug is used to provide the people to watch the Ancient Paintings, structures and ornaments of the various Shapes of the Ancient People.
So People come to see the Jallianwala Baug to know the history of the Ancient people to come across all the activities done by the people.
Celebration of the Jallianwala Baug Massacre
There was a meeting in the Jallianwala Baug by which many of the Sikh Religion came to the Jallianwala Baug for celebrating their festival in the Baishakhi Day.
The meeting in the Jallianwala Baug was cancelled and the message and the News were not properly spread to the people and due to this there was a huge amount of people gathered in the Jallianwala Baug for the meeting purpose.
On the Day of 13th April, 1919 at the Day of Baishakhi Occasion of Sikh Religion, people had came from many of the villages to celebrate the festival in the Jallianwala Baug.
When the R.E.H. Dyer was knew thatb the people came to the Jaliianwala Baug, then He went with to the Jallianwala Baug with his Fifty Gurkha Riflemen and He gave permission to his riflemen them to shoot on the large Crowd.
The Riflemen fired on the people for more than 10 Minutes and many of the people in the Jallianwala Baug died and many of them became injured.
The Riflemen fired on the people until their bullets became Zero. R.E.H. Dyer had become a great hero of the Britishers in the Britain Country and also became retired in the July 1920.
After the Massacre War in the Jallianwala Baug every army were trained for handling and tackling the Big Crowd of people. This resulted in the new Policy called as the “Minimum Force” to launch for the cause of war in the Jallianwala Baug.
More than 15000 people were situated in the Jallinawala Baug from which many of the people were died and also many of the people were Injure by the firing of the Britishers to the Indian people.
It was a violent act done by the Britishers to the Indian people to control the Indian people from their cruel rules of the Britishers. People of India were gathered in the Jallianwala Baug to protest against the Bad and cruel laws of the Britishers.
They had came to the Jallianwala Baug to rescue the Two Indian People who were arrested by the Britishers. So people from many towns had came there to fight for the Justice and to decide about the actions taken by the Britishers to the two Indian People.
More than 370 to 1000 people were died in the War and lots of people also became Injured during the Jallianwala Baug Massacre. The Riflemen fired for more than 10 Minutes to the Gates of the Jallianwala Baug until their Bullets get over. After this type of War by the Britishers, people of India lost their trust on the Britishers. Due to this there was a Non – Government co-operation Movement formed in the 1920 to 1922. The Two Indian leaders named as Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew had arrested by the Britishers for fighting against the Britishers. Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kichlew had helped the Mahatma Gandhiji in the Movement of Satyagrah.
Due to the fight of the Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kichlew against the Britishers and also for arresting them, many of the Indian people came to the Jallianwala Baug to protest against the Britishers act of arresting their National Leaders. It was a very bad and cruel laws of the Britishers to make the India to come to their control. Britishers had many of the ideas and the plans to eradicate and control the Indians to make the Indian Country to kneel down to them. On the 11th April, an English Teacher was caught by the Police and she was beaten. She was rescued by the Indian people which included the Pupils Father. At that time, all the trains were stopped, all the Government offices were stopped. At that time, many Buildings were burnt and also many telegraphs Posts were destroyed and damaged.
On the 13th April, people of India came for the meeting in the Jallianwala Baug and they were all gathered to protest against the Britishers. This information was known to the Dyer who was a Britisher and He came to the Jallianwala Baug with many of his Riflemen to fire on the people of India. His Riflemen then surrounded all around the people of India and they started firing on the people of India for more than 10 Minutes. People of India, tried to go out from the Jallainwala Baug, but due to the Riflemen surrounded on all the sides, not a single person got out from the Jallianwala Baug. Some people jumped into the Well which was situated in the Jallianwala Baug to save their life.
So Many of the Indian people died by the firing in the Jallianwala Baug. It was a cruel decision by the R.E.H. Dyer who was a Britisher and gave the order to fire on the people of India as to make the people of India to learn a lesson. This made the people every angry and after that many of the Indian Leaders made many protests against the cruel Britishers. All the Indians after this incident lost their trust on the Britishers.
Britishers were very cruel and they made Indians their Slaves and control them till India got Independence. Britishers put many types of Burdens on the Farmers and they made them to work for more Hours by providing much less Salary according to their work. Some Farmers sacrified their life for the Financial problems and they used to punish the Farmers for any action taken against the Britishers. Many Farmers borrow the Lands from many people and they had to pay them money as a Monthly or yearly Charge. When the Farmers can’t pay the Money to the people, then they were punished by the Britishers.
There was lot of cruel acts going on of the Britishers on the innocent people of India. People of India were beaten by many Chops and Sticks to make their work complete until the work is not finish. They were made them to work like Slaves and also beaten for controlling them. So Many of the Indian Leaders had made many ideas and plans to eradicate the Britishers from the Indian Country. So Jallianwala Baug was a Famous Place to respect and Salute many Indian Leaders who strive hard to give India Freedom from the Britishers.