Poverty | Causes, Effects and Best Prevention of Poverty | Essay



As long as poverty, injustice and gross inequality persist in our world, none of us can rest. 

Poverty in India


Poverty means that people who are situated by deprived of basic necessities of life.  Those people not have basic needs like food, cloth, and shelter i.e. poverty. There is lack of essential needs in life for subsistence in all state privation.

Most of the people are not getting essential needs and them also not getting two meals a day. In India, one of the largest poverty place of countries. There are so much people are poor in India. They are not getting the proper house for live and his children are not getting the proper schooling.

Over the 65th year of our independence day, there are so much poverty in India. Some poor people become so depressed and deprived class just because they have not proper food and nutrition.  In India, their poor people condition is not sufficiently improved.

Urban poverty in India

Most of the people are living in the urban area because of the poverty. The most growing and developing countries. But there is day by day population is increasing. Urban population has so much poverty.

  • Poor people migrate from rural areas to cities and towns in search of employment/financial activity.
  • In addition to this, there are around 4.5 crore urban people whose income level is on borderline of the poverty line.
  • The revenue of more than eight crore urban people is estimated to fall below poverty line (BPL).
  • Banks and Financial institutions are reluctant to provide them the loan because of the unstable income.
  • An income of urban poor is highly unstable. A large number of them are either casual workers or self-employed.
  • Five states that constitute around 40% of all urban poor people of India are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • A large portion of people living in slums is illiterate.
  • Around 35% of the total population of the four metro cities (Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai) consists of slum population.
  • The initiatives taken to deal with the problem of urban poverty has not yielded the desired results.

Rural poverty in India

Rural India is a heart of India, but in reality the rural people also not satisfied with his place. In rural India, there is severe poverty and people are living in rural area. The condition of poor people is far from satisfactory. The report on Socio-Economic and Caste census is follows that:

  • There are 18.46% people are belongs to scheduled cast and around 10.97% belongs to schedule tribes. It is the all rural households to become a Schedule cast and scheduled tribes.
  • Manual causal labor jobs and cultivation are the primary sources of income for rural people. Nearly 51 percent of all households are economically engaged in casual manual labour, and nearly 30 percent of them are involved in cultivation.
  • According to the census, there are around 48.5% of rural households are deprived.
  • Around 29.69% rural families have much of the vehicles included the (Two wheelers, Boat, etc.). There are some families are using his refrigerator while they have all vehicles.
  • In rural India, some of the people are paying tax, such as 4.58% rural households are paying tax.
  • Most of the people have his land in the rural area, but around 56% of the people have not any land for his homes.
  • The houses of around 54 percent rural families consist of either one or two-rooms. Out of them, around 13 percent lives in a one-room house.

Causes of poverty

Poverty makes the unequal distribution of wealth. At the growing population inflates the problem of poor techniques. There are rich person are exploiting to the poor people for increase his own wealth. This is resulted in India; the poverty main reason is rising populations, vast gap between rich and poor, corruption and black money. This all activity effects to the India and it became poverty.

  • Lack of facilitate agriculture

The poverty of India is mainly depending upon the agriculture but this is not doing well in this country. There are 80% of the people are depend on the agriculture. But our agriculture is in a bad way. Farmers are poor and uneducated. They do not know the modern methods of farming. They have no real facilities of irrigation. They do not get seeds and fertilizers in time. Thus, the yield reduced. Agriculture is not profitable today. We face the shortage of food. We have to import it. So, poor agriculture is one of the causes of India’s poverty.

  • Increase population

In our country the population is growing rapidly. But whatever resources are not available here for growing population. There is shortage of everything. The growth in population creates problems for us. Today, our population is 1.20 billion; tomorrow we will be 1.21 billion and so on. We need more food, more houses, and more hospitals for them. So we have no money to spend on development projects. The ever-growing rate of population must be checked. If not, we may not be able to remove India’s poverty.

  • Wide gap between rich and poor

Poverty overcome wide gap between rich and poor in India. This is the main reason of poverty. The rich are growing richer and the poor are becoming poorer. This economic gap between the two must be reduced. Our social system should be changed. The poor people must get all help to reap the fruits of Independence.

  • Corruption and black money

Poverty has corruptions in every walk of life. There is inefficiency in offices. People have become selfish. They neglect the national interests. Black money causes the problem of rising prices. Some people have all the privileges. But many others are suffering. Black money affects our economy. It creates poverty.

Effects of poverty

  • Illiteracy

In Poverty of India, the people are not growing, therefore, the illiteracy. Poor people are becoming primary reason illiteracy. They do not get any education, and it is tough for poor individuals who have not the necessity of life.

  • Child labour

In India, there are most of the boys and girls are uneducated and doing work as a child labour. They became the victim of child labour reason is poverty.

  • Problem in living condition

Poverty makes the people for the insufficient place to be live. They have not a proper place to live there. Most of the low-income families are living in houses with one room only.

  • Less of nutrition

Poverty is the leading cause of inadequate diet and insufficient nutrition. The resources of poor people are very limited, and its effect can see in their food.

  • Unemployment

Poor people move from villages to towns and form one city to another in search of employment/work. Since they are mostly illiterate and un-skilled, there are very few job opportunities open to them. Due to unemployment, many poor people are forced to live an unfulfilled life.

  • Awareness towards sanitation

A poverty person has a mere knowledge about hygiene, and they are very careless about this all.  They are not aware of the harmful consequences of not maintaining proper hygiene. The government is taking initiatives to make available clean and safe water, and proper sanitation system to them.

  • Feminization of poverty

Poverty effects on most of the women compare then man. Women are the worst victim of poverty. The total of poor women outnumbers the total population of poor people. The causes include low income, gender-inequality, etc. They deprived of proper-diet, medicines and health treatment.

  • Concentration in social disparity

The poverty is the reason for a number of people is distributed between rich and poor people. Concentration of wealth in the hands of few rich people leads to social disturbances and revolts. Fair or even distribution of wealth leads an overall improvement in general standard of living of individuals. There are the income disparity and unequal distribution of national wealth between the wealthy and poor people.

Prevention of Poverty

We should solve the poverty with all make a unity in this country. It will be very encouraged and helpful for all.

  • There are farmers must get all facilities for irrigation to solve his agriculture problem.
  • Farmers should take an excellent training and education of the better farming.
  • Agriculture will become so much profitable when all training and teaching provide to them.
  • An every year the rising population should check by a census.
  • Family planning schemes should introduce at everywhere.
  • There should not be any corruption in India. Everyone should do his work efficiently in his offices.
  • For developing country, more and more industries should be set up to meet the needs of the country.


Poverty is the very big problem for country. It should solve on a war footing. Our government is taking a step to step for developing a country. Eradication of poverty would ensure a sustainable and inclusive growth of economy and society. We all should do everything possible and within our limits to help alleviate poverty from our country.


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